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几种常见的生态护坡技术
几种常见的生态护坡技术
Several common ecological slope protection technologies
一、人工种草护坡
I. planting grass for slope protection
人工种草护坡,是通过人工在边坡坡面简单播撒草种的一种传统边坡植物防护措施。多用于边坡高度不高、坡度较缓且适宜草类生长的土质路堑和路堤边坡防护工程。
Artificial planting grass for slope protection is a kind of traditional slope plant protection measure by simply planting grass on slope surface. It is widely used in soil cutting and embankment slope protection projects with low slope height, gentle slope and suitable for grass growth.
特点:施工简单、造价低廉等。
Features: simple construction, low cost and so on.
缺点:由于草籽播撒不均匀,草籽易被雨水冲走,种草成活率低等原因,往往达不到满意的边坡防护效果,而造成坡面冲沟,表土流失等边坡病害,导致大量的边坡病害整治、修复工程,使得该技术近年应用较少。
Disadvantages: due to the uneven sowing of grass seeds, grass seeds are easy to be washed away by rainwater, grass survival rate is low and other reasons, often can not achieve satisfactory slope protection effect, resulting in slope gullies, surface soil loss and other slope diseases, resulting in a large number of slope disease treatment, restoration projects, making the technology less used in recent years.
小记:该方法局限性很大,缺点也很明显,可以考虑椰网(或椰毯)铺设法替代,既生态,施工也方便。
Note: This method has great limitations and obvious shortcomings. Coconut net (or coconut carpet) can be considered to replace it. It is not only ecological, but also convenient for construction.
二、土工格室植草护坡
Two. Grass planting and slope protection in geocell
土工格室植草护坡是指在展开并固定在坡面上的土工格室内填充改良客土,然后在格室上挂三维植被网,进行喷播施工的一种护坡技术。利用土工格室为草坪生长提供稳定、良好的生存环境。
Grass planting and slope protection in geocell is a kind of slope protection technology that fills the improved soil in the geocell which is deployed and fixed on the slope surface, and then hangs the three-dimensional vegetation net on the cell to carry on the spray seeding construction. Use geocell to provide stable and good living environment for lawn growth.
特点:采用土工格室植草,可使不毛之地的边坡充分绿化,带孔的格式还能增加坡面的排水性能。适合于坡度较缓的泥岩、灰岩、砂岩等岩质路堑边坡。
Features: The use of geocell grass planting can make the barren slope fully afforested, with hole format can also increase the slope drainage performance. It is suitable for cutting slopes with mudstone, limestone and sandstone with gentle slope.
缺点:要求边坡坡度较缓。
Disadvantages: slope gradient is slow.
三、蜂巢式网格植草护坡
Three. Honeycomb mesh grass planting slope protection
蜂巢式网格植草护坡,是一项类似于干砌片石护坡的边坡防护技术。是在修整好的边坡坡面上拼铺正六边形混凝土框砖形成蜂巢式网格后,在网格内铺填种植土,再在砖框内栽草或种草的一项边坡防护措施。
Honeycomb mesh grass planting slope protection is a slope protection technology similar to dry stone rubble revetment. It is a slope protection measure that hexagonal concrete frame brick is laid on the repaired slope surface to form honeycomb grid, and then planted soil in the grid, and then planted grass or grass in the brick frame.
特点:该技术所用框砖可在预制场批量生产,其受力结构合理,拼铺在边坡上能有效地分散坡面雨水径流,减缓水流速度,防止坡面冲刷,保护草皮生长。这种护坡施工简单,外观齐整,造型美观大方,具有边坡防护、绿化双重效果。
Features: The frame bricks used in this technology can be produced in batches in prefabricated yards. The stress structure is reasonable. The runoff can be effectively dispersed on the slope by splicing them together. The flow rate can be slowed down, the erosion on the slope can be prevented, and the growth of turf can be protected. This kind of slope protection construction is simple, the appearance is neat, the modelling is beautiful and generous, has the slope protection, the afforestation dual effect.
缺点:造价较高,高于浆砌片石骨架护坡,多用于填方边坡的防护,且由于草与草之间被混凝土框砖块隔离,在整体的固土效果方面效果不是很好。
Disadvantages: higher cost, higher than the mortar masonry skeleton slope protection, mostly used for filling slope protection, and because grass and grass are separated by concrete frame brick, in the overall effect of soil consolidation is not very good.
四、植生基质植物护坡
Four. Vegetative plant slope protection
植生基质植物护坡是在稳定边坡上安装锚杆挂网后,使用直升机专用喷射即将搅拌均匀的材料雨水的混合物喷射至坡面上,植物依靠植生基质材料生长发育,形成植物护坡的施工技术,具有边坡防护、恢复植被的双重作用,可以取代传统的锚喷防护和砌石护坡等措施。其基本结构为:锚杆(钉)、网和植生基质3部分。
Plant-based slope protection is a kind of construction technology that sprays the mixture of stirring uniform material rainwater onto the slope surface by helicopter after installing anchor net on the stable slope. The plant grows and develops on the plant-based material to form plant-based slope protection. It has the dual functions of slope protection and vegetation restoration. In order to replace the traditional measures such as anchoring and spray protection and masonry slope protection. The basic structure is 3 parts: anchor (nail), mesh and vegetation matrix.
特点:解决了普通绿化达不到的施工工艺效果;不受地质条件的限制。
Features: it solves the construction effect that ordinary greening can not reach, and is not restricted by geological conditions.
缺点:施工技术相对较难,工程量较大;喷播的基质材料厚度较薄,被太阳照晒后容易“崩壳”脱落;喷播的基质材料厚度较厚,重量过大,则挂网容易下掉;工程造价较高、投资较大。
Disadvantages: construction technology is relatively difficult, the amount of engineering is large; spray seeding substrate thickness is thinner, sunlight is easy to "collapse" fall off; spray seeding substrate thickness is thicker, the weight is too large, it is easy to hang down; project cost is higher, investment is larger.
五、框格内填土植草护坡
Five. Planting grass and slope protection in box
框格内填土植被护坡是指先在边坡上用预制框格或混凝土砌筑框格,再在框格内置土种植绿色植物。为固定客土,可与土工格室植草护坡、三维植被网护坡、浆砌片石骨架植草护坡、蜂巢式网格植草护坡结合使用。该方法造价高,一般仅在那些浅层稳定性差且难以绿化的高陡岩坡和贫瘠土坡中采用。
The vegetation slope protection with filling in the frame is to build the frame with prefabricated frame or concrete on the slope first, and then plant green plants in the soil in the frame. In order to fix the guest soil, it can be used in combination with geocell grass planting slope protection, three-dimensional vegetation net slope protection, slurry stone skeleton grass planting slope protection, honeycomb grid grass planting slope protection. The cost of this method is high, generally only in those shallow stability is poor and difficult to green high and steep rock slopes and barren soil slopes.
六、液压喷播植草护坡
Six, hydraulic spray planting grass protection slope.
液压喷播植草护坡,是国外近十多年新开发的一项边坡植物防护措施,是将草籽、肥料、粘着剂、纸浆、土壤改良剂上、色素等按一定比例在混合箱内配水搅匀,通过机械加压喷射到边坡坡面而完成植草施工的。
Hydraulic spraying grass planting slope protection is a newly developed slope plant protection measure in recent ten years abroad. It mixes grass seeds, fertilizers, adhesives, pulp, soil amendments and pigments in a certain proportion in the mixing box, and sprays grass planting into the slope surface by mechanical pressure.
特点:①施工简单、速度快;②施工质量高,草籽喷播均匀发芽快、整齐一致;③防护效果好,正常情况下,喷播一个月后坡面植物覆盖率可达70%以上,二个月后形成防护、绿化功能;④适用性广。目前,国内液压喷播植草护坡在公路、铁路、城市建设等部门边坡防护与绿化工程中使用较多。
Features: 1. Simple and fast construction; 2. High construction quality, uniform sprouting of grass seeds, uniform and uniform; 3. Good protection effect, under normal conditions, one month after spraying plant coverage can reach more than 70%, two months after the formation of protection, green function; 4. wide applicability. At present, hydraulic spraying grass slope protection is widely used in highway, railway, urban construction and other departments of slope protection and greening projects.
缺点:固土保水能力低,容易形成径流沟和侵蚀;施工者容易偷工减料做假,形成表面现象;因品种选择不当和混合材料不够,后期容易造成水土流失或冲沟。
Disadvantages: low capacity of soil and water conservation, easy to form runoff gully and erosion; builders are easy to jerry-built material reduction, the formation of surface phenomenon; due to improper selection of varieties and insufficient mixing materials, late easy to cause soil erosion or gully.
七、客土植生植物护坡
Seven. Slope protection with native vegetation
客土植生植物护坡,是将保水剂、粘合剂、抗蒸腾剂、团粒剂、植物纤维、泥炭土、腐殖土、缓释复合肥等一类材料制成客土,经过专用机械搅拌后吹附到坡面上,形成一定厚度的客土层,然后将选好的种子同木纤维、粘合剂、保水剂、复合肥、缓释营养液经过喷薄机搅拌后喷附到坡面客土层中。
The slope protection of guest soil planting plants is to make guest soil from such materials as water-retaining agent, adhesive, anti-transpiration agent, pellet agent, plant fiber, peat soil, humus soil and slow-release compound fertilizer. After special mechanical stirring, it is blown and attached to the slope surface to form a certain thickness of guest soil layer, and then the selected seeds are mixed with wood fiber and adhesive. The water retaining agent, compound fertilizer and slow release nutrient solution were sprayed onto the slope soil layer after mixing by the spray machine.
优点:可以根据地质和气候条件进行基质和种子配方,从而具有广泛的适应性,客土与坡面的结合,牢固土层的透气性和肥力好,抗旱性较好,机械化程度高,速度快,施工简淡,工期短,植被防护效果好,基本不需要养护就可维持植物的正常生长。该法适用于坡度
Advantages: Matrix and seed formula can be made according to geological and climatic conditions, so it has a wide range of adaptability, the combination of guest soil and slope surface, good permeability and fertility of solid soil layer, good drought resistance, high mechanization degree, high speed, simple construction, short construction period, good vegetation protection effect, basically no need for maintenance. The normal growth of plants can be maintained. This method is applicable to slope.

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